Phenotype dysfunction having kernel dimensions faculties from the association panel and you can linkage population

Interestingly, 7 miRNAs was indeed receive to help you situate in the linkage disequilibrium (LD) regions of new co-nearby SNPs, where zma-miR164e was shown to cleave brand new mRNAs of Arabidopsis CUC1, CUC2 and you can NAC6 in the vitro

22-nt RNAs one gamble very important regulatory positions on post-transcriptional level during development and fret reaction (Chen, 2009 ). The event off miRNAs would be to join their address family genes and you may cleave the mRNAs otherwise prevent the interpretation (Playground et al., 2002 ). Currently, miRNAs has actually drawn far attention due to their importance in numerous development process. Such as, an active phrase reputation of miRNAs was found to occur while in the maize kernel development (Li mais aussi al., 2016 ). Liu ainsi que al. ( 2014a ) shared brief RNA and you can degradome sequencing identified miRNAs in addition to their target family genes inside development maize ears, confirming 22 saved miRNA family members and reading ent (Liu ainsi que al., 2014a ). Furthermore, the fresh new overexpression away from miR156 in the switchgrass are receive to switch biomass design (Fu mais aussi al., 2012 ). The fresh new miR157/SPL axis has been shown to handle flowery body organ development and you will ovule production by controlling MADS-container genes and you may auxin code transduction to change cotton fiber yield (Liu mais aussi al., 2017b ). Zhu ainsi que al. ( 2009 ) showed that miR172 factors loss of spikelet determinacy, floral organ irregularities and you can seeds weight loss in rice (Zhu ainsi que al., 2009 ). Plant miRNAs are particularly very important regulatory issues out of plant family genes, having the possibility to switch complex qualities instance pick give. Although not, the fresh identity of miRNA loci in the target traits by the GWAS and QTL hasn’t been advertised yet. Within investigation, applicant miRNAs with the kernel dimensions qualities was excavated according to the latest co-local area for GWAS loci and you may QTL. The fresh new conclusions of the analysis have a tendency to raise our very own knowledge of new molecular process root kernel give creation in the maize.

In today’s analysis, i used a connection committee, in addition to 310 maize inbred outlines and you may a keen intermated B73 ? Mo17 (IBM) Syn10 doubled haploid (DH) population that has 265 DH lines to help you: (i) identify genetic loci and you may candidate genes for KL, KT and you may KW for the several environments by the GWAS; (ii) find the latest QTL to have KL, KT and you may KW attributes in numerous environments having fun with an ultra-high-thickness container chart; and you may (iii) determine co-local applicant genetics associated kernel proportions by mutual linkage mapping and you can GWAS. Overexpression away from zma-miR164e triggered the fresh off-controls ones family genes above and the failure away from seeds creation from inside the Arabidopsis pods, to your improved department number. The current analysis aims to raise the knowledge of the genetic structures and molecular mechanism of maize kernel yield and you can subscribe to the improvement to own kernel yield during the maize.


Generally, abundant variations in kernel size traits were observed in the association panel and the biparental population (Tables S1, S2; Figure 1). KL, KW and KT ranged from 6.50 to cm, 4.81 to 9.93 cm and to mm, with a mean of 9.65, 7.27 cm and mm, respectively, across different environments in the association panel (Table S1). For the IBM population, KL, KW and KT had a range from 7.12 cm to cm, 4.82 cm to cm and 3.43 cm to 4.99 cm, with an average of cm, 7.15 cm and 4.42 cm, respectively, across various environments. The broad-sense heritability (H 2 ) of the three-grain traits ranged from (%) to (%) in the association panel, and (%) for KL, (%) for KW and (%) for KT in the IBM population. Skewness and kurtosis indicated that these phenotypes all conformed to a normal distribution in the two populations. In the association panel, KW was consistently significantly positively correlated with KT [r = 0.293 (E1a), 0.217 (E2a), 0.309 (E3a); P < 0.01] across the three environments, and KL was significantly negatively correlated with KT [r = ?0.252 (E2a), ?0.127 (E3a); P < 0.05] across two of the environments (Table S3). In the IBM population, KL was consistently significantly positively correlated with KW at the level of P < 0.05, and the correlation coefficient was 0.158–0.594 across the six environments. Moreover, KW was consistently significantly positively correlated with KT [r = 0.186 (E4a), 0.196 (E5a), 0.136 (E6a); P < 0.05] for all three of the environments in the IBM population (Table S4). These results suggested that KL, KW and KT were coordinately developed to regulate kernel size and weight in maize. For each of the traits, there was a highly significantly positive correlation of the phenotypic values between each of the two environments in both populations (Tables S5 and S6). It indicated that the investigated phenotypes were reliable for the genetic architecture dissection of kernel size traits in maize.